III – Kimarite Glossary

Kimarite are techniuqes used to win a bout in sumo. In each bout, the gyōji decides and then announces to the audience which kimarite was used by the victor. At present, the Japan Sumo Association recognises eighty-two types of kimarite, however, only about a dozen of these are seen being used regularly. Below is a glossary of the recognized types of kimarite complete with a literal translation from Japanese to English.


Kihonwaza

Kihonwaza are basic techniques and are some of the most commonly seen used in sumo bouts (with the exception of abisetaoshi).

  • Abisetaoshi (Backward Force Down) – Forcing the opponent down onto their back by leaning forward while in a grappling position.
  • Oshidashi (Front Push Out) – Pushing the opponent out of the ring without holding onto their mawashi or fully extending the arms. Hand contact must be maintained for the duration of the push.
  • Oshitaoshi (Front Push Down) – Pushing the opponent down and out of the ring without holding onto their mawashi. Hand contact must be maintained for the duration of the push.
  • Tsukidashi (Front Thrust Out) – Forcing the opponent out of the ring with one or more hand thrusts.
  • Tsukitaoshi (Front Thrust Down) – Forcing the opponent down and out of the ring or onto their back with a hand thrust or shove.
  • Yorikiri (Front Force Out) – Forcing the opponent backwards out of the ring while holding onto their mawashi.
  • Yoritaoshi (Front Crush Out) – Forcing the opponent backwards out of the ring while holding onto their mawashi. The opponent must also collapse onto their back from the force of the attack.

Nagete

Nagete are throwing techniques.

  • Ipponzeoi (One-Armed Shoulder Throw) – While moving backwards and to the side, the opponent is pulled past the attacker and out of the ring. This is done by grabbing and pulling the opponent’s arm with both hands.
  • Kakenage (Hooking Inner Thigh Throw) – Lifting the opponent’s thigh with a leg, grasping them with both arms, and then throwing them to the ground.
  • Koshinage (Hip Throw) – The attacker bends over and pulls the opponent over their hip, throwing them onto the ground.
  • Kotenage (Armlock Throw) – The attacker wraps their arm around the opponent’s extended arm and throws them to the ground without touching their mawashi.
  • Kubinage (Headlock Throw) – The attacker wraps the opponent’s head in their arms and throws them to the ground.
  • Nichonage (Body Drop Throw) – The attacker extends their leg around the outside of the opponent’s opposite knee and sweeps both their legs off of the ground, throwing them downward.
  • Shitatedashinage (Pulling Underarm Throw) – The attacker extends their arm under the opponent’s arm and grabs the opponent’s mawashi while pulling them forward and/or to the side and throwing them to the ground.
  • Shitatenage (Underarm Throw) – The attacker extends their arm under the opponent’s arm and grabs the opponent’s mawashi then turns sideways, pulling the opponent down to the ground.
  • Sukuinage (Beltless Arm Throw) – The attacker extends their arm under the opponent’s armpit and across their back while turning sideways, forcing the opponent forward and throwing him to the ground without touching the mawashi.
  •  Tsukaminage (Lifting Throw) – The attacker grabs the opponent’s mawashi and lifts his body off the surface, pulling them into the air past the attacker and throwing them down.
  • Uwatedashinage (Pulling Overarm Throw) – The attacker extends their arm over the opponent’s arm/back to grab the opponent’s mawashi while pulling them forwards to the ground.
  • Uwatenage (Overarm Throw) – The attacker extends their arm over the opponent’s arm to grab the opponent’s mawashi and throws the opponent to the ground while turning sideways.
  • Yaguranage (Inner Thigh Throw) – With both wrestlers grasping each other’s mawashi, pushing one’s leg up under the opponent’s groin, lifting them off the surface and then throwing them down on their side.

Kakete

Kakete are leg tripping techniques.

  • Ashitori (Leg Pick) – Grabbing the opponent’s leg and pulling upward with both hands, causing the opponent to fall over.
  • Chongake (Pulling Heel Hook) – Hooking a heel under the opponent’s opposite heel and forcing them to fall over backwards by pushing or twisting their arm.
  • Kawazugake (Hooking Backward Counter Throw) – Wrapping one’s leg around the opponent’s leg of the opposite side, and tripping him backwards while grasping onto his upper body.
  • Kekaeshi (Minor Inner Foot Sweep) – Kicking the inside of the opponent’s foot. This is usually accompanied by a quick pull that causes the opponent to lose balance and fall.
  • Ketaguri (Pulling Inside Ankle Sweep) – Directly after tachi-ai, kicking the opponent’s legs to the outside and thrusting or twisting him down to the dohyō.
  • Kirikaeshi (Twisting Backward Knee Trip) – The attacker places his leg behind the knee of the opponent, and while twisting the opponent sideways and backwards, sweeps him over the attacker’s leg and throws him down.
  • Komatasukui (Over Thigh Scooping Body Drop) – When an opponent responds to being thrown and puts his leg out forward to balance himself, grabbing the underside of the thigh and lifting it up, throwing the opponent down .
  • Kozumatori (Ankle Pick) – Lifting the opponent’s ankle from the front, causing them to fall.
  • Mitokorozeme (Triple Attack Force Out) – A triple attack. Wrapping one leg around the opponent’s, grabbing the other leg behind the thigh, and thrusting the head into the opponent’s chest, the attacker pushes him up and off the surface, then throwing him down on his back.
  • Nimaigeri (Ankle Kicking Twist Down) – Kicking an off-balance opponent on the outside of their standing leg’s foot, then throwing him to the surface.
  • Omata (Thigh Scooping Body Drop) – When the opponent escapes from a komatsukui by extending the other foot, the attacker switches to lift the opponent’s other off-balance foot and throws him down.
  • Sotogake (Outside Leg Trip) – Wrapping the calf around the opponent’s calf from the outside and driving him over backwards.
  • Sotokomata (Over Thigh Scooping Body Drop) – Directly after a nage or hikkake is avoided by the opponent, grabbing the opponent’s thigh from the outside, lifting it, and throwing them down on their back.
  • Susoharai (Rear Foot Sweep) – Directly after a nage or hikkake is avoided by the opponent, driving the knee under the opponent’s thigh and pulling them down to the surface.
  • Susotori (Ankle Pick) – Directly after a nage is avoided by the opponent, grabbing the ankle of the opponent and pulling them down to the surface.
  • Tsumatori (Rear Toe Pick) – As the opponent is either losing their balance to the front or is moving forward, grabbing the leg and pulling it back, thereby ensuring the opponent falls to the surface.
  • Uchigake (Inside Leg Trip) – Wrapping the calf around the opponent’s calf from the inside and forcing him down on his back.
  • Watashikomi (Thigh Grabbing Push Down) – While against the ring of the surface, the attacker grabs the underside of the opponent’s thigh or knee with one hand and pushes with the other arm, thereby forcing the opponent out or down.

Hinerite

Hinerite are twist down techniques.

  • Amiuchi (The Fisherman’s Throw) – A throw with both arms pulling on the opponent’s arm, causing the opponent to fall over forward. It is so named because it resembles the traditional Japanese technique for casting fishing nets.
  • Gasshohineri (Clasped Hand Twist Down) – With both hands clasped around the opponent’s back, the opponent is twisted over sideways.
  • Harimanage (Backward Belt Throw) – Reaching over the opponent’s back and grabbing hold of their mawashi, the opponent is pulled over in front or beside the attacker.
  • Kainahineri (Two-Handed Arm Twist Down) – Wrapping both arms around the opponent’s extended arm and forcing him down to the dohyō by way of one’s shoulder.
  • Katasukashi (Under-Shoulder Swing Down) – Wrapping two hands around the opponent’s arm, both grasping the opponent’s shoulder and forcing him down.
  • Kotehineri (Arm Lock Twist Down) – Twisting the opponent’s arm down, causing a fall.
  • Kubihineri (Head Twisting Throw) – Twisting the opponent’s neck down, causing a fall.
  • Makiotoshi (Twist Down) – Reacting quickly to an opponent’s actions, twisting the opponent’s off-balance body down to the dohyō without grasping the mawashi.
  • Osakate (Backward Twisting Overarm Throw) – Taking the opponent’s arm extended over one’s arm and twisting the arm downward, while grabbing the opponent’s body and throwing it in the same direction as the arm.
  • Sabaori (Forward Force Down) – Grabbing the opponent’s mawashi while pulling out and down, forcing the opponent’s knees to the dohyō.
  • Sakatottari (Arm Bar Throw Counter) – To wrap one arm around the opponent’s extended arm while grasping onto the opponent’s wrist with the other hand, twisting and forcing the opponent down.
  • Shitatehineri (Twisting Underarm Throw) – Extending the arm under the opponent’s arm to grasp the mawashi, then pulling the mawashi down until the opponent falls or touches his knee to the dohyō.
  • Sotomuso (Outer Thigh Propping Twist Down) – Using the left (right) hand to grab onto the outside of the opponent’s right (left) knee and twisting the opponent over one’s left (right) knee.
  • Tokkurinage (Two-Handed Head Twist Down) – Grasping the opponent’s neck or head with both hands and twisting him down to the dohyō.
  • Tottari (Arm Bar Throw) – Wrapping both arms around the opponent’s extended arm and forcing him forward down to the dohyō.
  • Tsukiotoshi (Thrust Down) – Twisting the opponent down to the dohyō by forcing the arms on the opponent’s upper torso, off of his center of gravity.
  • Uchimuso (Inner Thigh Propping Twist Down) – Using the left (right) hand to grab onto the outside of the opponent’s left (right) knee and twisting the opponent down.
  • Uwatehineri (Twisting Overarm Throw) – Extending the arm over the opponent’s arm to grasp the mawashi, then pulling the mawashi down until the opponent falls or touches his knee to the dohyō.
  • Zubuneri (Head Pivot Throw) – When the head is used to thrust an opponent down during a hineri.

Sorite

Sorite are backwards body drop techniques.

  • Izori (Backwards Body Drop) – Diving under the charge of the opponent, the attacker grabs behind one or both of the opponent’s knees, or their mawashi and pulls them up and over backwards.
  • Kakezori (Hooking Backwards Body Drop) – Putting one’s head under the opponent’s extended arm and body, and forcing the opponent backwards over one’s legs.
  • Shumokuzori (Bell Hammer Drop) – In the same position as a tasukizori, but the wrestler throws himself backwards, thus ensuring that his opponent lands first under him. The name is derived from the similarity to the shape of Japanese bell hammers.
  • Sototasukizori (Outer Reverse Backwards Body Drop) – With one arm around the opponents arm and one arm around the opponents leg, lifting the opponent and throwing him sideways and backwards.
  • Tasukizori (Kimono-String Drop) – With one arm around the opponents arm and one arm around the opponents leg, lifting the opponent perpendicular across the shoulders and throwing him down. The name refers to the cords used to tie the sleeves of the traditional Japanese kimono.
  • Tsutaezori (Underarm Forward Body Drop) – Shifting the extended opponent’s arm around and twisting the opponent behind one’s back and down to the dohyō.

Tokushuwaza

Tokushuwaza are special techniques.

  • Hatakikomi (Slap Down) – Slapping down the opponent’s shoulder, back, or arm and forcing them to fall forwards touching the clay.
  • Hikiotoshi (Hand Pull Down) – Pulling on the opponent’s shoulder, arm, or mawashi and forcing them to fall forwards touching the clay.
  • Hikkake (Arm Grabbing Force Out) – While moving backwards to the side, the opponent is pulled past the attacker and out of the dohyō by grabbing and pulling their arm with both hands.
  • Kimedashi (Arm Barring Force Out) – Immobilizing the opponent’s arms and shoulders with one’s arms and forcing him out of the dohyō.
  • Kimetaoshi (Arm Barring Force Down) – Immobilizing the opponent’s arms and shoulders with one’s arms and forcing him down.
  • Okuridashi (Rear Push Out) – To push an off-balance opponent out of the dohyō from behind.
  • Okurigake (Rear Leg Trip) – To trip an opponent’s ankle up from behind.
  • Okurihikiotoshi (Rear Pull Down) – To pull an opponent down from behind.
  • Okurinage (Rear Throw Down) – To throw an opponent from behind.
  • Okuritaoshi (Rear Push Down) – To knock down an opponent from behind.
  • Okuritsuridashi (Rear Lift Out) – To pick up the opponent by his mawashi from behind and throw him out of the dohyō.
  • Okuritsuriotoshi (Rear Lifting Body Slam) – To pick up the opponent by his mawashi from behind and throw him down on the dohyō.
  • Sokubiotoshi (Head Chop Down) – Pushing the opponent’s head down from the back of the neck.
  • Tsuridashi (Lift Out) – While wrestlers face each other, to pick up the opponent by his mawashi and deliver him outside of the dohyō.
  • Tsuriotoshi (Lifting Body Slam) – While wrestlers face each other, to pick up the opponent by his mawashi and slam him onto the dohyō.
  • Ushiromotare (Backward Lean Out) – While the opponent is behind the wrestler, to back up and push him out of the dohyō.
  • Utchari (Backward Pivot Throw) – When near the edge of the dohyō, to bend oneself backwards and twist the opponent’s body until he steps out of the dohyō.
  • Waridashi (Upperarm Force Out) – To push one foot of the opponent out of the ring from the side, extending the arm across the opponent’s body and using the leg to force him off balance.
  • Yobimodashi (Pulling Body Slam) – Reacting to the opponent’s reaction to the attacker’s inside pull, the attacker pulls them off by grabbing around them around the waist, before throwing them down.

Hiwaza

Hiwaza are non-techniques.

  • Fumidashi (Rear Step Out) – The opponent accidentally takes a backward step outside the ring with no attack initiated against him.
  • Isamiashi (Forward Step Out) – In the performance of a kimarite the opponent inadvertently steps too far forward and places a foot outside the ring.
  • Koshikudake (Inadvertent Collapes) – The opponent falls over backwards without a technique being initiated against him. This usually happens because he has over-committed to an attack..
  • Tsukihiza (Knee Touch Down) – The opponent stumbles and lands on one or both knees without any significant prior contact with the winning wrestler.
  • Tsukite (Hand Touch Down) – The opponent stumbles and lands on one or both hands without any significant prior contact with the winning wrestler.

This information was taken from Wikipedia.

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